The Chinese ritual of footbinding was a thousand –year-long horror show in which women were grotesquely crippled from very early childhood. As Andrea Dworkin so vividly demonstrates, the hideous three inch long “lotus hooks”*—-which in reality were odiferous, useless stumps— were the means by which the Chinese Patriarchs saw to it that their girls and women would not “run around”1 All off the components of the sado-ritual syndrome are illustrated in this atrocity.


First there was the familiar fixation on “purity” in contrast to their counterparts in such countries as India, Chinese males did not have to confine their wives and daughters in purdah in order to protect their “purity”, but saw to it instead that their prisoners were hopelessly crippled. The foot purification (mutilation) ensured that women would be brainwashed as well, since their immobility made them entirely dependant upon males for knowledge of the world outside their houses. Moreover, since torture and mutilation of a small girl was carried out by her mother and other close female relatives, the lesson of ”never trust a woman” was branded upon her soul, and emotional dependency upon the seemingly less involved males was guaranteed. She was not supposed to know that men were the real Master minds of her suffering. Thus her mind was purely possessed, and it became axiomatic that the possessor of tiny feet was a paradigm of female goodness.


The second element of the syndrome—erasure of male responsibility—is evident in footbinding. From the Chinese male’s point of view, there was no question of his blame or moral accountability. After all, women “did it to themselves” One man, cited by Howard S. Levy, described his sister’s ordeal as a child, when she was forced to “walk” with bound feet:

Auntie dragged her hobbling along, to keep the blood circulating. Sister wept throughout, but mother and auntie didn’t pity her in the slightest, saying that if one loved a daughter, one could not love her feet.2

There is a kind of ignorant arrogance in this man’s assertion that the older women (the token torturers) felt no pity. According to his own account, they performed this ritual mutilation out of fear that otherwise the girl would not be marriageable. This was a realistic fear, since for a thousand-year period Chinese males—millions of them—required this maiming of female feet into “lotus hooks’ for their own sadistic, fetishistic, erotic pleasure. One male is quoted by Levy as making the following comment;

Every time I see a girl suffering the pain of footbinding, I think of the future when the lotuses will be placed on my shoulders or held in my palms and my desire overflows and becomes uncontrollable.3

Such male sadism, which dictated the creation of “ golden lotuses,” often masked itself as compassion. Nan-kung Po, a Chinese historical novelist, relates the thoughts of one of his characters upon beholding a courtesan’s  “tiny feet”:

He couldn’t help feeling compassion for her lower extremities. Compressing the feet in order to thicken the thighs must have been the invention of a genius. And of course the inventor must have been a woman.4

Such feelings of “compassion” and “pity”, which were often described by Chinese men as experienced at the sight of ‘tiny feet,” contributed to their sadistic pleasure. It did not occur to them, it seems, that they were the agents behind the mutilation, demanding it, and enforcing it, deceptively using their mindbound women to execute their wishes. This “compassion” was pure doublethink, pure abnegation of responsibility, made plausible by the visibility of women cast into the role of each other’s torturers and mutilators.

Yet another Chinese “genius” who signed himself as “Lotus Knower” blatantly expressed the same self-excusing logic.

Women of antiquity regarded the tiny foot as a crystallization of physical beauty; it was not a product of lewd thinking (emphasis mine). 5

Yet a few lines later he expresses his own lewd thinking:

The lotus has special seductive characteristics and is an instrument for arousing desire. Who can resist the fascination and bewilderment of playing with and holding in his palms a soft and jade-like hook? 6

The examples can be multiplied. No one was guilty except the girls and women who attempted to disobey or escape. No one was to blame for the evil of maiming women, since the reality of evil and maiming was not acknowledged.  There were only “beauty” and the “extremes of pleasure.”

Among the Chinese, footbinding was universally legitimated. Its apologists included philosophers, poets, authors of erotic literature, diplomats, and ordinary,” honorable men.”


  1. annebeck58 says:

    I went through a very brief time, during my college years, wearing high-heels. They were nothing, by comparison, to what we’re seeing these days.
    When I was in my junior year, second semester, I left school to help my mom take care of the house as well as my brothers and father. Mom had to go in for major surgery on her feet, to fix what years of post-WWII heels had accomplished. Seeing what she went through, pain-wise, stopped me from stepping out in heels again.

    The cultural side or sexually-erotic side of this practice still confuses me. Do lotus-hooks actually make thighs (and I presume buttocks) appear larger? Is it the constant swaying of the back as one teeters on these heel-less hooks that creates what some men have found so beautiful? When I was a child, around ten(?), we read, “The Pearl”, in Catholic school. Because this was at the time when China was opened back up to the USA, we read a few other Chinese books, including one I believe you mentioned, here. I never understood why the mothers, grandmothers, aunties made sure the girl’s feet were bound, and I mean I did not get it at the time, but I imagine my parents would not have been that thrilled to know the nuns were having us read it! Something tells me these nuns did not understand foot-binding, either.

    So I learned something new today.
    I wonder, when women see what this does to their feet, why they choose to do this to those feet?

  2. James O. Ogle [Free Parliamentary] says:

    If you know anyone who is interested in the cooperative corporation news organization, the All Party System Co., we’re calling for nominations on August 1st. Anyone can nominate their own name for International Bureau’s Secretary and Ethic & Grievances Officer under the company’s bylaws which allow the self-nominated members to self-nominate and elect their own name.

    If you look at the web page below, you’ll see that our top ten investors are listed in the International Bureau but we’re holding the first elections for the ten Worker BoDs and Volunteer Executives in August.

    The first two weeks is for nominations and elections of the Worker BoDs and the last two weeks of August are for the nominations and elections of the Volunteer Executives. Only elected Donor and Worker BoDs may vote for the electing the Volunteer Executives.

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    Hope you like it!

    Very truly yours,
    James Ogle, Volunteer vote counter

    • James O. Ogle [Free Parliamentary] says:

      APS Co.’s USA Bureau BoD, Unity Coalition SBA Ministry Director Daniel Stromgren [People’s Liberation] gets nod from Maine Green Party and there’s a lot of excitement for unity of all (Ds and Rs like it too):

      • James O. Ogle [Free Parliamentary] says:

        After a wonderful expansion of unity in 2011-12 despite being blocked and deleted by all those against unity for the good of the all, the 9th USA Parliament is on track for continual growth on a microscopic level in 2013.

        The Boston Tea Party (BTP) is promoting a between Green Tea unity, accepting nominations for national chair, all five executive positions and you may be affiliated with any political party or independent.

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        In 2014 we’re coordinating at least five super-state parliament elections and we’ll be using hand counted paper ballots.

        Be sure to check out the Small Business Administration Ministry too, where we have 31 Directors, three resolutions and six rules elected.

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        Finally, the new Sagadahoc County Micro-state Parliament Circuit (ss1-1-1) of Maine is featuring its first member of county micro-state parliament (MCMP) Daniel Stromgren [Green Independent] who is a candidate for Maine’s state senate district 19 in the upcoming August 27th 2013 special election.

        Are you wondering why third parties can’t garner more than 1% of the votes in elections? Every time road blocks are erected in key moments the unity gets blocked.

        If you’d like to learn more about how unity works in the USParliament.org entity then sign up on the Sagadahoc County Micro-state Parliament’s web page (or any geographical region/level) where all people are welcomed. Even if you don’t live within Sagadahoc County Maine, you’ll learn more first hand and be your name will be welcomed to the team:

  3. Has anyone else read the novel, “Snowflower and the Secret Fan,” by Lisa See? It depicts this maddening ritual in painful detail, as well as the destruction of close woman-woman bonds. My goddaughter was adopted from China in 1996. I have often imagined her grandmothers going through footbinding. Then, when I look at strong, smart, stubborn, loving Stephanie who wants to be a heart surgeon– somehow I feel her ancestor grannies see her, and are relieved and overjoyed that that ‘tradition’ is now a thing of the past. She is the future they surely couldn’t have even fathomed, and she honors them with her be-ing.